Artificial Intelligence: Types and Examples
The potential of machines, devices, robots, or computers to think and act like human or human smartness, their rationality is Artificial Intelligence. Basically, developing a technology that thinks as humans do. AI is a widely elaborated field. The developments and advancements in this field are limitless. Day-by-day, this field is soaring heights because there is demand for such technology in our lives.
Let’s go back to the past and know its history.
- In 1943, McCulloh and Pitts developed a boolean circuit model of the brain, later in 1950 Alan Turing proposed a test on Computing Machinery and Intelligence in which he mentioned what a computer needs to do to act like humans such as natural language processing, knowledge representation, automated reasoning, machine learning.
- In 1956, The meeting was conducted by Dartmouth in which ‘Artificial Intelligence’ adopted. Thus, got the name.
- In 1966–1974, After Robinson’s algorithm on logical reasoning, AI discovered computational complexity.
- 1969–1995: Knowledge-based systems developed, Neural networks returned to popularity which gave a boost to later developments in the field.
- 1988 to now: Rapid increase in technical depth of mainstream AI.
Types of AI: There is a total of 7 types of Artificial Intelligence based on Capabilities that are Narrow AI, General AI, and Super AI and based on functionalities that are Reactive Machine, Limited Memory, Theory of Mind, Self-awareness. Let’s look into Functionalities based AI.
- Reactive Machine: The machines in this type of intelligence don’t depend on memory or past experience, they act naturally as how humans think or act based on what they capture.
- Limited Memory: Unlike Reactive Machine, this type of AI depends on past memory and they process their thinking through today’s learning experiences thus creating a machine that develops its own representation.
- Theory of Mind: The important step, means what types of technology in machines we develop in the future according to human needs. As the name suggests ‘Theory of Mind’, its literal meaning means acting according to human psychological behavior.
- Self-awareness: Firstly we started with RM with no past experience but how to perceive it in the future then LM that had past memory by the time and it started focusing on acting like humans, in the third step, we got the exact idea about developing a device that will represent human intelligence. Now in this step, we consider all the steps and build advanced systems, the development of machines that is self-aware possessing human thinking: An AI.
We have developed so much in this field that now almost everything around us is AI. You loudly say “Hello Google”, immediately the AI possessed by Google will pop up asking you what you need. Let’s look into few examples:
- Robotic Vehicles: One of the much talk of the town topic today, driverless robotic vehicles, that will operate on sensors thus replacing humans from driving vehicles. These vehicles are self-driven. It was tested by Stanley, who drove a 132-mile course at the speed of 22 mph at the rough terrain of Mojave Dessert.
- Siri and Alexa: Also based on AI, Humans can talk to Siri and Alexa like they communicate with other humans. It responds in the same way. Just say “Hey Siri” and the device will start talking like humans.
- Machine translation: Devices are now capable enough to translate any language for you to understand. You enter any sentence in your native language and tell the device the language you want it to translate it will do conveniently. e.g google translate.
- Robotics: An altogether different field because of its advancement is also AI-driven. Robots that you see are developed that can work, talk, react like humans. Today, robots also look like humans. They are created to ease the work of humans.
The field is immensely vast. Our present and future are completely dependent on AI. Artificial Intelligence has occupied such a space in our lives that now it’s difficult for anyone to live without it. The studies, products, inbuilt technology is what everyone needs today. ‘Humans connecting to each other’ is replaced by ‘human connecting with AI’ which is also developed by humans, whose motto is how to think and act like humans!